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Sat, 15 Feb 2014
The Fun of Running a Public Web Service, and Session Storage
One of my websites, Sudokugarden, recently surged in traffic, from about 30k visitors per month to more than 100k visitors per month. Here's the tale of what that meant for the server side.
As a bit of background, I built the website in 2007, when I knew a lot less about the web and programming. It runs on a host that I share with a few friends; I don't have root access on that machine, though when the admin is available, I can generally ask him to install stuff for me.
Most parts of the websites are built as static HTML files, with Server Side Includes. Parts of those SSIs are Perl CGI scripts. The most popular part though, which allows you to solve Sudoku in the browser and keeps hiscores, is written as a collection of Perl scripts, backed by a mysql database.
When at peak times the site had more than 10k visitors a day, lots of
visitors would get a nasty
mysql: Cannot connect: Too many open
connections error. The admin wasn't available for bumping the
connection limit, so I looked for other solutions.
My first action was to check the logs for spammers and crawlers that might hammered the page, and I found and banned some; but the bulk of the traffic looked completely legitimate, and the problem persisted.
Looking at the seven year old code, I realized that most pages didn't actually need a database connection, if only I could remove the session storage from the database. And, in fact, I could. I used CGI::Session, which has pluggable backend. Switching to a file-based session backend was just a matter of changing the connection string and adding a directory for session storage. Luckily the code was clean enough that this only affected a single subroutine. Everything was fine.
For a while.
Then, about a month later, the host ran out of free disk space. Since it is used for other stuff too (like email, and web hosting for other users) it took me a while to make the connection to the file-based session storage. What happened was 3 million session files on a ext3 file system with a block size of 4 kilobyte. A session is only about 400 byte, but since a file uses up a multiple of the block size, the session storage amounted to 12 gigabyte of used-up disk space, which was all that was left on that machine.
Deleting those sessions turned out to be a problem; I could only log in as
my own user, which doesn't have write access to the session files (which are
www-data, the Apache user). The solution was to upload a
CGI script that deleted the session, but of course that wasn't possible at
first, because the disk was full. In the end I had to delete several gigabyte
of data from my home directory before I could upload anything again.
(Processes running as root were still writing to reserved-to-root portions of
the file system, which is why I had to delete so much data before I was able
to write again).
Even when I was able to upload the deletion script, it took quite some time to actually delete the session files; mostly because the directory was too large, and deleting files on ext3 is slow. When the files were gone, the empty session directory still used up 200MB of disk space, because the directory index doesn't shrink on file deletion.
Clearly a better solution to session storage was needed. But first I investigated where all those sessions came from, and banned a few spamming IPs. I also changed the code to only create sessions when somebody logs in, not give every visitor a session from the start.
My next attempt was to write the sessions to an SQLite database. It uses about 400 bytes per session (plus a fixed overhead for the db file itself), so it uses only a tenth of storage space that the file-based storage used. The SQLite database has no connection limit, though the old-ish version that was installed on the server doesn't seem to have very fine-grained locking either; within a few days I could errors that the session database was locked.
So I added another layer of workaround: creating a separate session database per leading IP octet. So now there are up to 255 separate session database (plus a 256th for all IPv6 addresses; a decision that will have to be revised when IPv6 usage rises). After a few days of operation, it seems that this setup works well enough. But suspicious as I am, I'll continue monitoring both disk usage and errors from Apache.
So, what happens if this solution fails to work out? I can see basically two approaches: move the site to a server that's fully under my control, and use redis or memcached for session storage; or implement sessions with signed cookies that are stored purely on the client side.
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